Lower Egypt

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses for kids - Lower Egypt

Facts about the history of the ancient Egyptians and maps of Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt
Discover the history surrounding the area of ancient Egypt referred to as Lower Egypt. Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The major ancient cities of Lower Egypt were Memphis, Alexandria, Hermopolis, Giza, Esna (Letopolis), Busiris, Avaris, Tanis, Leontopolis, Sais, Bubastis and Heliopolis. Read about the different religious cult centers of Lower Egypt where a variety of gods and goddesses were favored and worshipped.

Lower Egypt had its own kings and Pharaohsuntil the unification of the country c3100BC. Additional, interesting facts and information about the ancient Egyptians, and their mysterious gods and goddesses, is also available via:

Upper Egypt

Upper & Lower Egypt

Geography & Cities of Ancient Egypt

All about Ancient Egyptians

Map of Lower Egypt
The following map of Lower Egypt shows the location of some of the ancient major cities and towns that were established on the banks of the River Nile.

Map of Lower Egypt

Map of Lower Egypt
The Egyptian map shows the location of Lower Egypt and its approximate relationship to the area of the Upper kingdom. The ancient Egyptians did not define the exact border between the two domains, however, the lands of the ancient country and civilisation, based around river Nile, stretched from the Mediterranean Sea right down to Aswan and its border with
Nubia (Kush)(aka Ethiopia), now Sudan. 

The Nile Delta region of the Lower kingdom, in the north, emptied into the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Valley region of the Upper kingdom had higher altitudes and terminated at the First Cataract where the lands of Kush, or Nubia, began. Its boundary was traditionally held to be the First Cataract

The Ancient Cities of Egypt

Major Ancient Cities of Lower Egypt
The names of the major ancient cities of Lower Egypt are detailed below and can be located on the above map. For additional information and interesting facts refer to the Ancient Egyptian Cities.

Major Ancient Cities of Lower Egypt


Facts about Lower Egypt
Interesting facts about the history, geography and the gods and goddesses of the Lower kingdom are detailed in the Fact Sheet.

Lower Egypt Fact Sheet

Fact 1 on Lower Egypt: The north of the country was where the Nile stretched out with its several branches to form the Nile Delta.

Fact 2 on Lower Egypt: The Nile Delta region in the north emptied into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile Delta spans 22015 sq. km (8,500 sq. miles) and is fringed by lagoons, wetlands, lakes and sand dunes.

Fact 3 on Lower Egypt: The earliest Egyptian sites are in Lower Egypt and the area known as the Faiyum depression

Fact 4 on Lower Egypt: Early Egyptian history is divided into for four periods:
The Early Dynastic (3,100 - 2700 B.C.)
Old Kingdom(2700 - 2155 B.C.)
The Middle Kingdom (2134 - 1785 B.C.)
New Kingdom(1,580 - 1085 B.C.)

Fact 5 on Lower Egypt: It was known to the Pharaohs as To-Mehu

Fact 6 on Lower Egypt: The River Nile would break its banks each year, saturating the surrounding countryside and a rich silt, alluvial soil, ideal for crop growing

Fact 7 on Lower Egypt: There were twenty nomes and the first of these was at Memphis

Fact 8 on Lower Egypt: The founding of the ancient city of Memphis was associated with Menes, Narmer and King Hor-Aha  around 3000 BC and it was the capital during the Old Kingdom. It was the religious cult center of the Triad of Memphis that centred around the Cult of Ptah, his wife Sekhmet and their son was Nefertem, but many other gods were also worshipped in the city

Fact 9 on Lower Egypt: The city of Giza is the famous location of the sphinx and the Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza.

Fact 10 on Lower Egypt: The climate is milder than the climate in the Upper kingdom. Temperatures are less extreme and there is more rainfall in this area.

Fact 11 on Lower Egypt: In approximately 3100BC, Upper and Lower Egypt were united when King Narmer  defeated the army of the Lower kingdom.

Fact 12 on Lower Egypt: The area next to the River Nile was called the 'black lands' further away from the river were the 'red lands'. Both were extremely important to the economy and civilisation of ancient Egypt.

Fact 13 on Lower Egypt: The 'Black Lands' were the farming areas on the banks of the Nile.

Fact 14 on Lower Egypt: The 'Red Lands' were the desert areas that protected the lands of the Egyptians on two sides and separated ancient Egypt from neighbouring countries and invading armies. They were also rich in raw materials such as stone and precious metals such as gold, silver and copper and semi-precious stones

Fact 15 on Lower Egypt: Definition: Lower Egypt = Nile Delta region of the north

Fact 16 on Lower Egypt: The famous Rosetta Stone was found in 1799 at Rosetta (Rashid) in the Nile Delta and enabled Egyptologist to start to decipher hieroglyphics. The Hieroglyph system of writing was developed over 3000 years ago. The earliest known examples of Egyptian writing have been dated to 3,400 BC

Fact 17 on Lower Egypt: The Deshret is famous Red Crown of ancient Egypt associated with Lower Egypt. The White Crown of the upper kingdom was called the Hedjet

Fact 18 on Lower Egypt: The Lotus flower symbolized the sun, of creation, rebirth, regeneration & represented Upper Egypt

Fact 19 on Lower Egypt: The lioness goddess of the upper kingdom was Sekhmet, a powerful warrior goddess

Fact 20 on Lower Egypt: Each town had its own particular god and there were cult centers of the major gods

Fact 21 on Lower Egypt: The cult centers of were the Ennead of Heliopolis and the Triad of Memphis

Fact 22 on Lower Egypt: Papyrus was the symbol of the Lower kingdom whilst the lotus flower was recognised as the symbol of the Upper kingdom

Fact 23 on Lower Egypt: Crocodilopolis, "Crocodile City", was the cult center of Sobek the Egyptian crocodile god who symbolized the might of the Egyptian pharaohs

Fact 24 on Lower Egypt: Bubastis located in the Eastern Delta, now the modern city of Zagazig, was the cult center of the cat goddess Bastet

Fact 25 on Lower Egypt: Leontopolis, "City of Lions", was located in the central area of the Nile delta. It was dedicated to the lion gods and its temples contained live lions and cats.

Fact 26 on Lower Egypt: The city of Heliopolis "City of the Sun" was an important religious center and was once the largest city dating back to pre-dynastic times. The ancient Egyptians believed it to be the birthplace of the sun god Atum the "Lord of Heliopolis" and the first nine Egyptian gods known as the divine family or the Ennead of Heliopolis.

Lower Egypt Fact Sheet

Lower Egypt Cult Centers (Heliopolis, Memphis and Hermopolis)
The most famous Egyptian gods and goddesses had political backing which led to large followings and cult centers. Priests vied for position and there were religious cults in both kingdoms before the country was unified. The names of the cults indicated the number of major gods worshipped in the cult and the location of the cult center. The names of the cults indicated the number of major gods worshipped in the cult and the location of the cult center. The major cults located in Lower Egypt were the Ennead of Heliopolis consisting of the gods Atum, Geb, Isis, Nephthys, Nut, Osiris, Set, Shu and Tefnut. The Triad of Memphis centred around the cult of the god Ptah, his wife Sekhmet, lioness of war and their son Nefertem.

Lower Egypt - The Kings and Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
In early Ancient Egypt there were two pharaohs, one that ruled Upper Egypt and one that ruled the lands covering Lower Egypt. The kings had their own regalia including a crown that was specific to the part of Egypt that they ruled. The 'Hedjet' or White Crown for Upper Egypt and the 'Deshret' or Red Crown for Lower Egypt. In approximately 3100BC the two kingdoms were united and the crowns were combined in the Pshent crown that symbolized a united kingdom.

Red Crown of Egypt

Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt (the North)

White Crown was called the Hedjet

White Hedjet crown of Upper Egypt
(the South)

The Pshent was the red and white Double Crown

The Pshent crown of
Unified Egypt

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