The History of Egypt for Kids - Queen Hatshepsut

The History of Ancient Egypt and facts about Queen Hatshepsut, the Land of Punt and her mortuary temple

Ancient Egyptians - Hatshepsut
A comprehensive guide and fact sheet about Queen Hatshepsut. Discover fascinating facts and information about Queen Hatshepsut.

Interesting facts & information about this ancient Egyptian Queen

The dynasty and period in history when she was queen

Major events in her life and the trading expeditions to the Land of Punt

Fact based biography and her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari

The life and times of this ancient Egyptian queen

The famous people in her life

The daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose Iand Queen Ahmose

An overview of Hatshepsut, a famous queen of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptians - Hatshepsut
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Overview of the Life of Queen Hatshepsut
Queen Hatshepsut reigned from c. 1479–1458 BC She was the fifth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Ancient Egypt during the period in ancient Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. Queen Hatshepsut established a highly prosperous rule and opened up new trading opportunities in the 'Land of Punt'. She was a prolific builder and with her chief architect Senemut created some magnificent buildings including her own mortuary temple. There is speculation that Senemut was also her lover. Queen Hatshepsut was one of the most successful Pharaohsof ancient Egypt but there was considerable opposition to a woman as ruler and her association with Senemut. After her death her name and image, like that of Akhenaten, the 'heretic king', were frequently defaced. For additional facts about the royal women refer to Ancient Egyptian Queens.

Queens of Egypt:: Hatshepsut

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet

Fact 1 on Hatshepsut: She reigned between 1479–1458 BC and was the fifth pharaoh in the eighteenth dynasty of the New Kingdom.

Fact 2 on Hatshepsut: Her name meant "Foremost of the Noble Ones".

Fact 3 on Hatshepsut: This queen of Egypt was the daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose Iand Queen Ahmose. As a princess she was was well educated and skilled in government and administration, and would have spent time working and learning from the Vizier (High Chancellor) of Egypt. She had an older sister called Neferukheb who died before she could become politically powerful.

Fact 4 on Hatshepsut: She entered an incestuous marriage with her half-brother Pharaoh Thutmose II. Incest was an acceptable practise amongst the kings of Egypt in order to retain the sacred and divine bloodline - it was not practised by non-royal Egyptians.

Fact 5 on Hatshepsut: She was the chief wife of Pharaoh Thutmose II and was accorded the status of "King's Principal Wife".

Fact 6 on Hatshepsut: According to the Egyptian tradition Pharaoh Thutmose II practised Polygamy allowing him to take numerous wives and concubines at the same time.  Polygamy was introduced to afford the pharaohs the best opportunity to establish their dynasty and ensure the line of succession.

Fact 7 on Hatshepsut: Her marriage to Pharaoh Thutmose II resulted in a daughter called Neferure who was raised and well educated as a royal Egyptian princess.

Fact 8 on Hatshepsut: Queen Hatshepsut adopted the title of "God's Wife of Amun" in preference to the title of "King's Principal Wife". The title directly associated her with the powerful god Amun. The title of "God's Wife of Amun" referred to the myth of the divine birth of the kings of Egypt, in which his mother was impregnated by the god Amun. The title reflected the powerful concept of 'Divine Queenship'.

Fact 9 on Hatshepsut: The position of the "God's Wife of Amun" also held the title of "Chieftainess of the Harem" for additional info refer to Royal Harem. The concept of 'Divine Queenship' was intended to make the Queen's position in the country, and within the harem, as sacred and therefore unassailable. This clever and astute queen was using the office as a political weapon.

Fact 10 on Hatshepsut: The title of "God's Wife of Amun" hereditary, and therefore passed on to her daughter Neferure. As the queen had not produced a male heir to the throne she adopted this title to ensure that she retained power - and that this power would also pass to her daughter Princess Neferure.

Fact 11 on Hatshepsut: Pharaoh Thutmose II produced a male heir destined to become Thutmose III.The mother of the heir was called Iset, aka Isis. It is not clear whether Iset was a concubine or a secondary wife of Thutmose II, and she must have had the title of either "King's wife" or the "King's wife of non-royal birth". Producing the heir to the throne would have given her greater status and when her son became king she would have been accorded the title of 'King's Mother'. By her actions Hatshepsut had ensured that Iset would not pose a threat to her power.

Fact 12 on Hatshepsut: The most important royal women were the King's Principal Wife, "God's Wife of Amun" and the King's Mother and were accorded special titles, symbols and dress and allowed to wear the Royal Vulture Crown that consisted of a falcon feather headdress with its wings spread round her head in the act of protection.

New Kingdom Queen wearing Royal Vulture crown

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet

Facts about Hatshepsut
Discover fast, interesting fun facts about Hatshepsut for kids with some amazing, cool and quick information about ancient Egypt and Egyptians. Ideal for children, homework, schools, teachers and kids of all ages! Find fascinating fun facts about Hatshepsut for kids and the history, culture and civilisation of the ancient Egyptians and ancient Egypt. Interesting, fun facts about Hatshepsut for research, schools, students and kids of all ages.

Learn about this ancient Egyptian queen the fast and easy way via the Hatshepsut Fact sheet.

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet

Fact 13 on Hatshepsut: Pharaoh Thutmose II was a weak king who was dominated by his ambitious royal wife. King Tuthmosis II died in 1479 B.C. and Hatshepsut became regent for the very young heir, Tuthmosis and "managed affairs of the land".

Fact 14 on Hatshepsut: In the space of less than three years the queen became his regent, his co-regent and then declared herself to be the pharaoh.

Fact 15 on Hatshepsut: The ancient Egyptians had no word that was equivalent to "Queen", meaning the female ruler. The title of a female ruler was the same as a man - King or Pharaoh.

Fact 16 on Hatshepsut: She was not the first pharaoh-queen, this precedent had been set by the previous pharaoh-queens of Egypt Queen Nitocris and Queen Sobeknefru.  However as a woman she was resented by some of the courtiers and government officials. But there was only minor opposition and as the daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I, the wife of the previous pharaoh and her experience in government during the reign of her weak husband she had a vast number of supporters.

Fact 17 on Hatshepsut: She also had the full support of the powerful priests of Amun and was accepted by the ancient Egyptian people as a ruler called "Beautiful to Behold" and she assumed all the traditional titles associated with a king of ancient Egypt and the throne name of Ma’atkare.

Fact 18 on Hatshepsut: As pharaoh-queen she dressed in masculine attire on state occasions and wore the nemes headdress with the rearing cobra uraeus and the false beard of the pharaohs, as symbols of royal authority. This false beard was tightly knotted, plaited and hooked behind the ears. Living pharaohs wore a beard with a straight edge. Only when they died could they wear the “osird” divine beard with an upward pointing curl.

Queens of Egypt:: Hatshepsut

Fact 19 on Hatshepsut: She began her reign as pharaoh that was to last for nearly twenty-two years and this determined woman had great ambitions to revive the fortunes of the ancient Egyptians which had been disrupted in the chaotic reign of the Hyksos foreign rulers of the 15th - 17th dynasties.

Fact 20 on Hatshepsut: The coronation of the Queen-Pharaoh involved elaborate and sacred purifying rites in an ancient ceremony called "the placing of the diadem in the hall". A great river procession of the queen and her entourage journeyed from Thebes to Heliopolis allowing her to be seen by the people which culminated in a sacred re-enactment of Atum offering the crown of Egypt. Refer to Crowns of Egypt for additional info.

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet


Queens of Egypt: Picture of an Egyptian Queen in the Harem

Fact sheet containing interesting facts, biography and info about the life and times of the ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut.

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet

Fact 21 on Hatshepsut: She received strong and sound support from Nehesy who served her as chancellor and chief treasurer. Her Vizier (Prime Minister) was called Aametju who guided her in royal government and planning policies.

Fact 22 on Hatshepsut: Another powerful supporter was Senenmut, the favorite court official of the queen and her chief counselor. Neferure had risen to power from his successes as a high priest of Amun. Senenmut was also admired for his architectural skills and was the trusted tutor of Neferure.

Fact 23 on Hatshepsut: Support in religious matters came from Amenemhet, the High priest of the temple of Amun in Heliopolis. He was aided by Hapuseneb who was the 'First Prophet of Amun' based at Thebes and the overseer of all of the Amun priests of Egypt.

Fact 24 on Hatshepsut: Supported by theses powerful men who held key positions in the government, her first actions were directed towards restoring trading relationships that had been lost during the foreign occupation of the Hyksos.

Fact 25 on Hatshepsut: Egypt's access to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea provided the Egyptians with massive opportunities for trade. From the Mediterranean they had access to the lands of Europe, Greece and Rome and the Red Sea provided a gateway to the riches of the east. Nubia and beyond, which included the 'Land of Punt', provided access to the riches of Africa - refer to Egyptian Trade for more info about ancient Egyptian imports and exports.

Fact 26 on Hatshepsut: Lucrative trade agreements filled the royal coffers. The new prosperity of Egypt enabled the queen to embark on ambitious building projects requiring the skills of great architects.

Fact 27 on Hatshepsut: The building policies of the queen and her advisors moved from building hidden tombs to building great temples, which was greatly encouraged by the priests of Amun. The building of the massive Hatshepsut mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari on the western shore in Thebes would be one of her greatest legacies.

Fact 28 on Hatshepsut: There were several highly talented and skilled architects in the royal court of the pharaoh-queen.  The name of Senenmut is the best known architect but two other architects, called Ineni and Neferkhewet, also played a hugely significant role in the ambitious building projects of the queen. The wealth acquired through foreign trade enabled the queen and her architects to build to a standard that would not be rivalled by any other culture for 1000 years.

Fact 30 on Hatshepsut: The building projects initiated by the queen and executed by her royal architects included renovating large sections of the temple at Karnak including a procession route to the temple, the Red Chapel aka the Chapelle Rouge,  a pair of granite Obelisks and a great pylon.

Fact 31 on Hatshepsut: A rock-cut temple, called the "Stable of Antar", dedicated to the goddess Pakhet was built at Beni Hasan. A temple dedicated to the goddess Satet was built at Aswan. A temple to the god Horus was built at Buhen to the North of the Second Cataract.

Fact 32 on Hatshepsut: The queen herself was memorialized in her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari and as a sphinx at Tanis.

Hatshepsut mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari

Hatshepsut mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari

Fact 33 on Hatshepsut: Her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari is a masterpiece of architecture. Three ascending
colonnades and terraces were set into the cliffs that were reached by two unusual ramps
that provided stunning visual impact of the temple. Her temple at Deir el-Bahari was called Djeseru-djeseru meaning the 'Holy of Holies' and was dedicated to Amun-Ra, Horus, Hathor and Anubis.

Fact 34 on Hatshepsut: Although most of her wealth was accumulated via peaceful trading missions there were also military campaigns to Nubia and Canaan. The queen is also famous for sending the legendary expedition to the Land of Punt which is believed to be located on the border of Sudan and Ethiopia.

Fact 35 on Hatshepsut: A series of reliefs depicting the expedition to Punt, which took place in the ninth year of her reign, are carved into the walls of the queen's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari. Reliefs depicting the expedition to Punt included scenes showing the gathering of goods, the loading of vessels in Punt, the return voyages to Egypt and the presentation of the gold, ivory and myrrh trees in Thebes.

Fact 36 on Hatshepsut: The heir to the throne and co-regent Tuthmosis III acted as a military commander on some of the missions. By this time he had married several wives. It is believed that the pharaoh-queen arranged for her daughter Princess Neferure, who she had groomed as her successor, to marry Tuthmosis III. There is no evidence to substantiate the marriage but it would have been a logical and desirable union. Princess Neferure died leaving no children. 

Fact 37 on Hatshepsut: Senenmut had always been the favorite of the queen. She bestowed many favors and titles on Senenmut. The different titles received by Senenmut totalled over 80. These numerous titles and favors bestowed upon him have given rise to a good deal of speculation about his relationship with the queen. Many believe that he was her lover. This speculation is fuelled by the fact that Senenmut dared to attempt to link his own tomb with that of the queen-pharaoh.

Fact 38 on Hatshepsut: In the 19th year of the queen-pharaohs reign Senenmut mysteriously disappeared - it is not clear whether he died a natural death or was murdered. But his sudden death must have left the queen-pharaoh vulnerable.

Fact 39 on Hatshepsut: Tuthmosis, the rightful king, had been relegated to the background but as he grew older must have felt some resentment towards the queen-pharaoh. He was a brave military commander and had been well educated. He was well able to assume the kingship.

Fact 40 on Hatshepsut: The pharaoh-queen must have been about 40 when she mysteriously died. No details of the cause of death were recorded. She was given a funeral and Tuthmosis III became the pharaoh of Egypt.

Fact 41 on Hatshepsut: A short time passed and masons of the king started to destroy or deface the images, statues and name of the queen in an attempt to to erase her memory and delete her name from the records of ancient Egyptian rulers.

Fact 42 on Hatshepsut: Meanwhile, hidden in the Valley of the Kings, Hatshepsut still rested in her coffin. She is remembered today as a great pharaoh of Egypt - attested by yourself by reading this article...

Ancient Egyptian Queen - Hatshepsut Fact Sheet

Learning about the ancient Egyptians and Queen Hatshepsut inspires everyone to visit historical sites and undertake Egypt Travel and Tours to experience the wonders of this magical land at first hand. Many people choose to experience a tour of Egypt on a Nile Cruise stopping at the famous destinations and sites of Egypt such as the Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx. The information and facts about Hatshepsut will provide you with a great insight into Egypt and the legacy of the ancient Egyptians.


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